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Oaklands Sugar Mill Remnants

  • 645607
  • 68-70 Captain Whish Avenue, Morayfield

General

Also known as
Whish's Sugar Mill Remnants
Classification
State Heritage
Register status
Entered
Date entered
18 September 2009
Types
Farming—agriculture/dairying/grazing/horticulture: Plantation
Manufacturing and processing: Mill
Themes
2.3 Exploiting, utilising and transforming the land: Pastoral activities
2.4 Exploiting, utilising and transforming the land: Agricultural activities
4.6 Working: Working as exploited/indentured labour
Construction period
1865, Mill Remnants (1865)

Location

Address
68-70 Captain Whish Avenue, Morayfield
LGA
Moreton Bay Regional Council
Coordinates
-27.09636604, 152.97439737

Map

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Significance

Criterion CThe place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Queensland’s history.

The Oaklands Sugar Mill Remnants are physical evidence of the early agricultural history of the Caboolture region, and are representative of one of the earliest developments in Queensland's influential sugar industry. These remnants are evidence of one of the earliest endeavours to produce sugar on a commercial basis in Queensland.

The remnants demonstrate attempts to develop primary industries in the Caboolture and north coast region. Though production was short-lived (1865 - 1872), the early successes at Oaklands influenced the expansion of the sugar industry into other centres of Queensland.

The remnants are associated with an important identity in the early development of the sugar industry in Queensland, Captain Claudius Buchanan Whish. Whish was one of the first sugar producers in Queensland to market commercial quantities of sugar and high quality rum. He was also to later become a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly from 1870-72 and Surveyor of Roads.

The remnants are a rare and early surviving reminder of the use of South Sea Islander labour in southeast Queensland. South Sea Islander labourer was employed on Oaklands from 1865 only two years after Robert Towns first introduced their labour on his properties in Queensland. The Oaklands site dates from the early phase of South Sea Islander employment in the sugar industry and could provide important evidence about early practices and, in comparison with other sites, if and how those practices may have changed over time.

Oaklands has considerable potential to reveal information regarding the development of sugar production processes. The early era of sugar plantations was marked by the idiosyncratic introduction of new processes and techniques. Although initially successful, the venture at Oaklands was ultimately a failure and comparison of this site with other more successful sites may reveal important information about how producers attempted to adapt to varying environments, and ultimately, about how sugar production techniques in Queensland changed and evolved.

The place has high potential for additional archaeological artefacts. Though subdivision has occurred in the vicinity of the mill remnants, there is no evidence to suggest that Lot 600 on RP804608 has undergone any significant ground disturbance since the closure and dismantling of the mill. A number of in-situ bricks, mound features and depressions on the property are suggestive of substantial structural foundations concealed in shallow to medium depth deposits just below the current land surface.

Little documentary evidence is available that relates to the sugar processing operations on Whish's Oaklands property, other than reports on levels of production and sale. Analysis of available documentary sources combined with further archaeological investigations of the remnants has potential to answer important research questions relating to early sugar processing techniques and technologies and the working conditions experienced by South Sea Islander labourers working on Queensland sugar plantations. Archaeological investigations of the remnants may also reveal new and important information about the Oaklands Mill layout and may provide evidence on the location of other mill and plantation infrastructure not discernible from documentary sources alone.

History

The Oaklands sugar mill operated between 1865 and 1872. The mill was built and operated by Claudius Buchanan Whish, the first sugar producer to market his produce in Queensland in commercial quantities. The mill was used to process the cane harvested from fields on his Oaklands property - much of the harvesting was performed by South Sea Islander labourers. The mill ceased production in 1872 as sugar yields were poor in the mild winter climate of southern Queensland and due to the competition of larger and better yielding plantations being established in the Maryborough and Mackay regions.

By 1836, sugar cane had reached southern Queensland and was being grown in small plots in the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement. Experimentation with sugar cane as a viable crop was also conducted between 1836 and 1847 by a number of enterprising citizens of the colony. Trials of suitable varieties were undertaken by John Buhot in the Brisbane's botanic gardens (QHR 600067; BHS 1995:5; Blake 2003:36).

Sugar cultivation was pioneered in Queensland by Louis Hope who established a plantation at Ormiston in 1862. Hope erected Queensland's first sugar crushing mill, supplied by Cook & Co. of Glasgow, on his Ormiston property on the banks of Hilliard's Creek in 1864. The first commercially milled sugar in Queensland was produced there in September that year (see QHR entry 600775).

Caboolture was one of the first districts in Queensland where sugar was grown on a substantial scale. George Raff, a prominent Brisbane merchant and politician, began planting sugar at his 'Morayfield' property on the Caboolture River in 1864 (Alcorn and Dunn 1997:2-3; Barter 2009:3).

One of the first to respond to the successes of Hope and Raff in growing sugar was Captain Claudius Buchanan Whish. Whish had served as an officer in the British army in India before deciding to begin a new career in Australia (Australian Dictionary of Biography Online 2008; Blake 2003:36, Tutt 1979:74). After seeing Hope's and Raff's plantations in operation, Whish selected land on the southern banks of the Caboolture River. Whish named his property Oaklands and employed Buhot to provide advice on the planting of his estate (Blake 2003:36, Barter 2009:2).

In 1865, Whish took on John Raymond Trevilian as a business partner for his Oaklands operations. Whish required a large labour force to cultivate the cane in sufficient quantities to make the operation marketable and profitable. After consulting with his contemporaries in the sugar industry, Raff and Hope, Trevilian undertook a voyage to Melanesia to find suitable labourers (BHS 1995:7). In December of 1865, 33 South Sea Islander labourers were brought to Australia and arrived at Oaklands by bullock dray after disembarking on the North Pine River. Whish is reported to have paid up to £7 for each labourer (BHS 1995:7). They were housed in the cotton house and fed milk and rice (BHS 1995:7). Whish was therefore not only a pioneer in the sugar industry but also in the use of South Sea Islander labour only two years after the first group of Islanders had been brought to Australia by Robert Towns for his cotton plantation on the Logan River.

The introduction of Islander labour on Oaklands was an initial success. With a large amount of sugar being cultivated, Whish acquired capital to build a sugar mill on Oaklands in 1865. In 1866, he purchased a six horsepower mill from Smellie & Co. of Brisbane for his new mill and installed a Wetzel pan and centrifuge. A 'single-flued boiler, mill, with three rollers' and a battery 'set in brickworks, with plain brick top and skimmings channel therein', and a boiling-room and curing room were also on site (Brisbane Courier 1867). The sugar processing operations are also noted as being located in the 'middle of the plantation, and at the top side of the present cultivation' (Brisbane Courier 1867). Whish also obtained a distiller's licence for £25 so that he could produce rum from molasses (Alcorn and Dunn 1997:2-3).

The success of the sugar operations at Oaklands and the use of Islander labour is further highlighted by Whish's replacement in 1867 of the original 33 Islander labourers with another 50 for whom he paid £150 in advance (BHS 1995:7). That same year, his homestead included a large house, manager's residence, labourer's cottages and huts. There was also a large store, blacksmith's shop, stables and carriage house, all arranged in "...a rather irregular manner" (Brisbane Courier 1867).

By 1869 Whish had approximately 90 acres of cane under cultivation on Oaklands and another 26 acres on the shores of Moreton Bay. Further evidence of Whish's belief in his Islander labour force was his construction of a building to properly house them in 1871.

The early success on Oaklands however did not last. The climate was marginally too mild for the sugar plants to grow in the winter months (Barter 2009:4). Moreover, the development of plantations further north around Maryborough and Mackay produced better yields and featured a shorter period of growth (Barter 2009:4). As early as 1870, case rum and liqueurs made at Whish's distillery were being offered for sale at reduced priced (Brisbane Courier 1870). In an attempt to continue sugar operations at Oaklands, the idea of a limited liability company was considered. The capital proposed was £12,000 in shares of £10 each (Brisbane Courier 1871). However, by 1872, Oaklands ceased sugar production. In February 1872, much of the equipment and working plant from Oaklands was offered for sale (Brisbane Courier 1872a, 1872b). Much of the equipment was purchased by the Mackenzie brothers of Ingham and moved to their operations in the Herbert River district of north Queensland (Wood 1965:9). The site of Oaklands was sold at auction in September 1873 and subsequently used for grazing and agriculture following the closure of the sugar mill until gazetted as an environmental reserve in 1990 (Brisbane Courier 1873, DERM 1863, 1964, 1967, 1977, 1979, 1990).

References

Alcorn, Berenis and Robin Dunn (1997) Moreton Sugar Mill: sweet heart of Nambour, Nambour: Berenis Alcorn and Robin Dunn.

Ann Wallin and Associates (1998) A cultural heritage analysis of Lot 6 RP158171, 67 Weier Road, Caboolture, unpublished report.

Barter, Leith (2009) The Normanby Story: creating a film history of the Normanby Distillery, paper presented at the Australian Historical Association Regional Conference 2009: Constructing the Past, University of the Sunshine Coast, 30 June 2009).

Blake, Thom (2003) Caboolture Shire Cultural Heritage Study Volume 1, unpublished report to Caboolture Shire Council.

Brisbane Courier

1867 The Oaklands Sugar Plantation, Caboolture River, 23 September 1867, p.3

1870 Oaklands Distillery, 19 August 1870, p.1

1871 Commercial, 20 March 1871, p.4

1872a Auction Sales, 26 January 1872, p.4

1872b To Sugar Planters, 31 January 1872, p.1

1873 Auction Sales, 6 September 1873, p.8

Buderim Historical Society (1995) South Sea Islanders Came to Buderim, Buderim: Buderim Historical Society Inc.

Department of Environmental and Resource Management

1863 Survey Plan M32.26

1865 Certificate of Title No.8615 19th September 1865

1964 Survey Plan SL4615

1967 Survey Plan SL115175

1977 Survey Plan RP158171

1979 Survey Plan SL8958

1990 Survey Plan RP804608

Claudius Buchanan Whish (1827-1890) Australian Dictionary of Biography Online: http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060413b.htm?hilite=whish (accessed 28 July 2008)

Louis Hope (1817-1894) Australian Dictionary of Biography Online: http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A040471b.htm?hilite=louis%3Bhope (accessed 28 July 2008)

Tutt, Stan (ed.) (1979) From Spear to Musket 1879-1979: Caboolture centenary, Council of the Shire of Caboolture: Caboolture.

Wood, C.T. (1965) Sugar Country: a short history of the raw sugar industry in Australia, 1864-1964, Queensland Cane Growers' Council: Brisbane.

Description

The archaeological features within Lot 600 on RP804608 are most likely associated with the former Oaklands Sugar Mill operations. They are located east of Captain Whish Avenue in a small park owned by the Moreton Bay Regional Council. This constitutes Lot 600 on RP804608 which has been verified as being part of the original property that Claudius Whish acquired as a co-tenant with John Raymond Trevilian in September 1865 and subsequently named "Oaklands". This is verifiable in the historical title for this parcel of land.

Ground surface visibility on the property is good. The site has a low fence of treated pine logs delineating the site. It is suspected that archaeological deposits may particularly extend further east of this fencing.

Substantial archaeological artefacts and features are evident on site, including in-situ bricks that may be the foundations for a substantial structure or foundations for milling and crushing machinery. Four substantial depressions can be identified, with significant brick remnants adjacent to each in low mound formations. The depressions are suggestive of rooms, compartments or in-ground tanks within a larger remnant subsurface structure. Visible bricks appear to be hand-made, with a narrow rectangular frog on one face. Exotic guava trees are also growing throughout the place.

The western extent of the place is considered the edge of the road reserve abutting Lot 600 on RP804608. The eastern extent of the remnants is unclear, but potentially extends beyond the limits of the pine log fencing. The site is abutted by modern houses to the north and south and additional elements of the sugar mill may have at one time been located in those areas. However any remnants located to the north and south are likely to have undergone disturbance due to the levelling of the lot and subsequent construction work. Based on the available evidence and low potential for these areas, the boundary for the sugar mill is considered as the northern and southern extents of Lot 600 on RP804608.

Image gallery

Location

Location of Oaklands Sugar Mill Remnants within Queensland
Licence
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Last updated
20 January 2016
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