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Little Sea Hill Lighthouse

  • 602784
  • Sea Hill Point, Curtis Island

General

Classification
State Heritage
Register status
Entered
Date entered
12 August 2011
Type
Transport—water: Lighthouse
Theme
5.4 Moving goods, people and information: Using shipping
Architect
Cullen, EA
Builder
Lind, A & Son
Construction period
1895, Sea Hill Lighthouse (1895)

Location

Address
Sea Hill Point, Curtis Island
LGA
Gladstone Regional Council
Coordinates
-23.491167, 150.980173

Map

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Significance

Criterion AThe place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland’s history.

Through its location, material and design the Little Sea Hill Lighthouse, constructed in 1895 on Curtis Island, is important in demonstrating the Queensland government's policy of installing visual navigation aids on the Queensland coast. During its working life it has been an integral component of safe navigation from Keppel Bay to the Rockhampton town wharves and to the deepwater ports at Broadmount and Port Alma.

The lighthouse is also surviving evidence of the past importance of the Port of Rockhampton to Queensland. Between 1860 and 1899 Rockhampton was the second most important port in Queensland after Brisbane, handling between 86% and 99% of the port trade of Central Queensland.

The lighthouse stands on an elevated site which has been used to assist navigation in Keppel Bay since the 1870s. The location continues to function as part of the navigation system for Port Alma.

Criterion DThe place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.

The Little Sea Hill Lighthouse is one of only four timber framed and corrugated iron clad lighthouses, built to aid coastal navigation, which are still in situ. This is a type unique to colonial Queensland. The other surviving examples are those at Grassy Hill, Cooktown (QHR 601241); Caloundra Head (QHR 602746) and Goods Island, Torres Strait (Commonwealth Heritage List 105458).

The Little Sea Hill Lighthouse retains the main elements of its type, including the braced hardwood timber framing, tapered corrugated iron cladding, timber doors and windows, and locally-designed and made lantern room.

The lighthouse provides important evidence of the evolution of the light sources used by Queensland lighthouses, retaining evidence of its use of kerosene (1895-1933) through its roof top vent and four wall vents in the lantern; and of its use of acetylene gas (1933 to 1977) through the surviving gas cylinder stand and gas pipes. It now operates a solar-powered electric light.

Criterion EThe place is important because of its aesthetic significance.

The lighthouse demonstrates the classic lighthouse form and architectural qualities (truncated cone tower, lantern room, balcony and domed roof) which are celebrated and photographed by enthusiasts across Australia.

The white tower, on its elevated site above the Golden Shore, stands in dramatic contrast to the colours of the surrounding natural landscape and acts as a monument to human endeavour in an isolated environment.

History

The Little Sea Hill Lighthouse is a timber-framed, corrugated iron-clad lighthouse, erected in 1895, standing on Little Sea Hill at Sea Hill Point on the northwest corner of Curtis Island. When built it was an important aid to navigation from Keppel Bay into the Fitzroy River. From 1858 a system of navigation aids, including buoys, beacons, lightships and lighthouses, along with a pilot service, guided vessels into and up the Fitzroy River; and this system was progressively upgraded. Little Sea Hill has been used for navigation purposes since 1877 or earlier, and the current lighthouse is still active as a solar-powered landfall light with a modern lens.

The timber-framed design of the lighthouse on top of Little Sea Hill (the locality is referred to as Sea Hill, after the hill to the east of Little Sea Hill) is a Queensland innovation. The design was part of the late 19th century effort to improve maritime safety along Queensland's long coastline within a limited budget. When Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859 the new colony had only one active light station (a complex including a lighthouse and support buildings): Cape Moreton (QHR 600257) on Moreton Island - with a stone lighthouse erected in 1856. This situation was untenable for a colony that relied heavily on coastal shipping.

In 1864 the Queensland government appointed a select committee to investigate the state of harbours and rivers in the colony. A direct outcome of this inquiry was the construction of the Bustard Head Lighthouse south-east of Gladstone in 1867-68 and a lighthouse at Sandy Cape in 1870. [1] These were prefabricated structures built of cast-iron segments bolted together, wholly imported from England.

By 1873, the year of the inaugural Intercolonial Coast Lighthouse Conference in Sydney, Queensland had 39 lights (including lighthouses and beacons) along its coastline. The conference was the first attempt to coordinate coastal lights and signals around Australia and recommendations included the need for more coastal lights in Queensland.

Around this time a new Queensland lighthouse design was implemented. For the lighthouse erected on Lady Elliott Island in 1872-73, Colonial Architect FDG Stanley designed a structure which utilised readily available local timber, specifying a hardwood frame clad with curved wrought iron plating. [2] This reduced the cost of construction, and despite problems of termite infestation and rusting, this type of construction, or its derivative, a timber frame with corrugated galvanised iron sheeting, became the standard for subsequent 19th century Queensland lighthouses.

Between 1873 and 1901 approximately 14 lighthouses were constructed in Queensland using hardwood framing and plated iron sheeting, [3] and another six were constructed with a conical timber framed tower enclosed with light gauge galvanised iron with corrugations tapered from bottom to top. The latter were associated mostly with harbour entrances and included: Bay Rock (1886 - inactive - relocated to the Maritime Museum of Townsville); Grassy Hill, Cooktown (1886 - active, QHR 601241); Goods Island (circa 1886 - active, Commonwealth Heritage List 105458); Little Sea Hill (2nd) (1895 - active); Caloundra Head (1896 - inactive, QHR 602746); and Gatcombe Head (1900 - demolished). A seventh lighthouse of this type, and the tallest, was constructed at Bulwer Island in the Brisbane River in 1912 (inactive - relocated to the Queensland Maritime Museum in Brisbane, QHR 600301). The first Little Sea Hill lighthouse (1886 - inactive - relocated to the Gladstone Maritime Museum) has not been included in the above list of lighthouses, as although it used corrugated iron over a timber frame, unlike the others it had a hexagonal tower design. This had more in common with earlier timber-clad lighthouses built in Queensland.

The current lighthouse at Little Sea Hill is one of only four known corrugated iron Queensland lighthouses still standing at their original sites (and one of three still active at the time of writing).

The Little Sea Hill lighthouse's location resulted from the rise of Rockhampton as a port, and the need to guide ships into the Fitzroy River. The Archer brothers arrived in the district in 1853 and established a small wharf at the highest navigable point on the Fitzroy River to load wool from Gracemere station.

Although Rockhampton existed by 1856, its development as a port stemmed from the short lived Canoona gold rush of late 1858, with Rockhampton declared a Port of Entry in October that year. In 1867 the Central railway opened west from Rockhampton, but the local railway system was not linked to Brisbane until 1903.

The 1880s witnessed a building boom in Rockhampton, due to the commencement of goldmining at Mount Morgan. The Rockhampton Harbour Board was established in 1895 and an impressive customs house [QHR 600817] was built in 1899, but the Port of Rockhampton was eventually eclipsed by Port Curtis (Gladstone Harbour). As Rockhampton was initially the main outlet for goods produced in Central Queensland (and for goods and immigrants arriving) it was the second most important port in Queensland after Brisbane between 1860 and 1899. Rockhampton handled between 86% and 99% of the port trade of Central Queensland in this period. However, in state importance as a port Rockhampton fell behind Townsville from 1895, and it was also surpassed by Cairns and Gladstone between 1925 and 1939. By 1939 Rockhampton only handled 55% of the port trade of Central Queensland. [4]

One reason for the decline of Rockhampton as a port was because the tidal Fitzroy River required constant dredging to keep its channels open to shipping; and as ships became larger over time they required deeper water. Broadmount and Port Alma were developed as deep water options to the town wharves in Rockhampton. A railway line opened to a new wharf at Broadmount in 1898 (this railway closed in 1929), and to Port Alma in 1912 (where a wharf had been built in 1884), but neither port was a success. Port Alma supplanted Broadmount during and after World War I [5] but was in turn overshadowed by bulk handling facilities at Gladstone from the 1960s.

In the early days of the Port of Rockhampton, the main concern was the safety of shipping. The surge of vessels up the Fitzroy River in 1858, and the wrecking of some of them, meant a pilot was needed. Pilot Robertson was initially appointed by the NSW government, but in June 1859 he was replaced by Captain Matthew S Rundle.

Newspaper reports indicate the presence of a pilot station on Curtis Island by December 1858, [6] but the first permanent pilot station on Curtis Island was built at Cape Capricorn (where a lighthouse was constructed in 1875) in 1861-1862. The pilot station was then moved to Grassy Hill (near Station Point, between Cape Keppel and Sea Hill) c.1864. [7] At this time the only navigation aid in Keppel Bay was a black buoy off Timandra Bank (between Sea Hill and Keppel Rocks).

To assist with night navigation in Keppel Bay and the Fitzroy River, in 1865 two lanterns were placed at the Grassy Hill Pilot Station, to point to the position of the Timandra buoy, and lightships were placed at the entrance to the river (at a bend in the channel known as 'the elbow') and at the Upper Flats soon after. By this time there was also an anchorage off Sea Hill. [8]

In June 1873 Sea Hill was chosen as the site for a quarantine station, in anticipation of the arrival of the 'Countess Russell', an immigrant ship suffering from an outbreak of typhoid fever. A number of the ship's passengers lie in the Keppel Bay Cemetery, located northwest of the lighthouse. In early 1877 over 500 Chinese people were quarantined at Sea Hill due to a smallpox outbreak, but by 1878 the Quarantine Station was moved to Mackenzie Island, due to serious problems with mosquitoes and sandflies.

As well as acting briefly as a Quarantine Station, Sea Hill increased its role in maritime navigation with the erection of a signal mast for Customs in 1875. [9] There were also two lights at Sea Hill Point by early 1877, [10] which worked in conjunction with the lights at Grassy Hill to indicate the Timandra buoy.

Further changes followed. By 1881 there were six pairs of lights in the lower reaches of the Fitzroy, and plans were made to adjust the leading lights at Sea Hill to assist vessels of heavy draught to Port Alma. In August 1885 it was announced that a tide surveyor and three boatmen would be stationed at Sea Hill, [11] and a cottage was built for the tide surveyor in 1886. [12] In March 1886 the Department of Ports and Harbours announced there would be a lightship at the Timandra buoy, and the northern light (on the beach) at Little Sea Hill and the two leading lights at the Pilot Station would be discontinued. One light was to remain at the Pilot Station and the high light at Little Sea Hill would have a red sector. Ships could take on pilots from the lightship, the Pilot Station, or Sea Hill. [13]

The first of two lighthouses erected at Little Sea Hill was lit in late 1886 during the annual tour of inspection by Captain GP Heath (appointed Portmaster in 1862 and responsible for opening new ports, lighthouses and lightships). After lighting the Bay Rock (near Magnetic Island) and Grassy Hill (Cooktown) lighthouses, Captain Heath made sure the new light at Sea Hill was in working order. He reported that in consequence of the lightship being moved from the Elbow to the Timandra buoy, the northern leading light at Sea Hill was removed and the upper light on the hill was 'improved by a more powerful apparatus placed in a small tower'. [14]

The newspapers initially referred to the light as being one of the Fifth Order, [15] replacing the two lanterns at Sea Hill, but later it was reported as a light of the Fourth Order 'exhibited from a light-house that has only recently been completed', which would light vessels from the sea to the Balaklava Island line of lights, clearing them of the east and centre banks, and lighting them up the Narrows as far as Deception Creek. [16]

By 1886 the Lightkeeper was a Mr Aird, and near the beach northwest of the lighthouse the Golden Shore Hotel provided accommodation for passengers landed at Sea Hill and awaiting the tender to Rockhampton. [17]

Sea Hill assumed even more importance over the years; the lighthouse became a boarding station for Customs officers in 1887, [18] and by 1894 Sea Hill possessed a telegraph station, signal station and light station. The Lightkeeper's cottage and telegraph station were illustrated in The Queenslander 17 November 1894, and these appear to be on the flat where the Pilot Station was later built. A building in the foreground may be the schoolhouse which was built circa 1886. [19]

By November 1894 the Queensland Marine Department planned to erect a new lighthouse at Sea Hill, and in February 1895 the tender of Mr A Lind, of Brisbane, for £113 5s, was accepted. [20] A Queensland Marine Department plan of the lighthouse was signed on 16 January 1895 by the Engineer EA Cullen and by the Portmaster TM Almond (1 February 1895). This plan shows the timber framing for a two-storey truncated cone tower, about 25 feet 10 inches (7.87m) in height between the base plate and the bottom of the lantern and its surrounding gallery (balcony). The base diameter was 14 feet 1 inch (4.29m), with a 7 feet 4 inch (2.24m) diameter at the top of the tower. Little Sea Hill lighthouse was taller than the 1886 Bay Rock (8m), Grassy Hill (6m) and Goods Island (5m) lighthouses. The plans are basically identical to the 1899 plans for the Gatcombe Head lighthouse, [21] and the 1896 Caloundra Head lighthouse is a similar size.

The Little Sea Hill lighthouse was almost finished by the end of April 1895, but the illuminating apparatus did not arrive until July 1895. The light was exhibited on 7 August and was visible for 16 miles (25.7km) in clear weather. [22] A May 1895 plan shows a Fourth Order Fixed and Condensing Apparatus, by Chance Brothers and Co Ltd. [23] The light had a 250mm focal radius, used a three wick Trinity [House] burner (for paraffin oil, or kerosene), and had red and white sectors. The new lighthouse and apparatus reportedly cost £500. [24]

The original 1886 lighthouse remained on site adjacent to the taller new lighthouse, but was listed as 'disused' on a 1920 survey plan. It was moved to Grassy Hill to replace the flashing light there between October 1947 and June 1948, [25] and was later moved to the Gladstone Maritime Museum.

The Commonwealth took over the 1895 lighthouse, along with Queensland's other major lighthouses, in 1915. Following the passage of the 1912 Commonwealth Navigation Act, from 1 July 1915 Queensland handed over responsibility for 30 manned lights and 37 unattended lights, beacons, and buoys to the Commonwealth Government. The Commonwealth constructed additional light stations and made substantial upgrades to existing lights, with many lighthouses converted to unattended acetylene lights.

In 1913 only one family, that of Mr Gray, the Lightkeeper and Postmaster, lived at Sea Hill, while the Pilot Station at Grassy Hill had 8 families. [26] However, this situation changed when the Pilot Station was moved to Sea Hill in 1918-1919. The best of the old housing material from Grassy Hill was reused at Sea Hill, and the old Lightkeeper's cottage and the old school building at Sea Hill were renovated. [27] At this time the flagstaff was moved to the top of the hill and the small lighthouse was altered for watch purposes. [28]

Two Pilots' houses were located on top of Little Sea Hill behind the two lighthouses, and a small building located between the houses was used as a post office/telephone exchange. By October 1924 the second (spare) Pilot's house was occupied by the Lightkeeper, as the old Lightkeeper's cottage was beyond repair. The latter cottage was removed by August 1925.

The Lightkeeper's cottage at Sea Hill was maintained by Queensland's Marine Department both before and after the transfer of the lighthouse to the Commonwealth, and the Commonwealth's Lighthouse Service (CLS) paid for the services of a Queensland Marine Department Lightkeeper. The location of the pilot station at Sea Hill was referred to as a 'coast light station' in 1922. [29]

A June 1925 inspection of the lighthouse listed a three wick trinity burner, two oil reservoirs and two oil pipes; there was provision for 10 panes of glass, but two bays were blocked with timber. The dome was of galvanised sheet metal, the gutters were cast iron, and the lantern's interior was lined in cedar. The tower had 19 hardwood uprights and was sheathed with corrugated iron. [30]

In 1932 the Lightkeeper's surname was Ralston, but his services were dispensed with after the Commonwealth automated the 1895 lighthouse (still referred to as a coast light at this time), converting it from kerosene to acetylene gas operation on 10 August 1933. The fixed lens with white and red sectors was retained, and the kerosene burner was replaced by an acetylene burner and flasher, to show two flashes every six seconds. The candlepower of the light was increased from 1,000 to 1,500 candles, although it was reported that the new light was not as powerful as the old. [31] A June 1933 CLS plan for the conversion of the lighthouse to gas shows gas cylinders located inside at the base of the tower. At this time the tower had a total height (including the 2 foot (.61 m) concrete base) of 40 feet, 11+3/8 inches, (12.48 m) to the top of the vent on top of the dome. The focal plane was at a height of 34 feet 1+3/8 inches (10.4 m). [32]

After 1933 the Little Sea Hill was listed as an 'unattended' light. The second Pilot's residence was unoccupied by 1934, and is not mentioned in correspondence after 1938. It was apparently moved to Gatcombe Head, [33] leaving only one residence on top of Little Sea Hill.

The position of Pilot at Sea Hill was abolished in 1961 and the remaining Pilot's residence and the post office on Little Sea Hill were removed soon after. Three residences from the Pilot Station survive, located between Little Sea Hill and Pacific Creek, where the former stables are used as a boatshed.

Rockhampton's river port closed in the mid 1960s, and all shipping had to terminate at Port Alma. A change in port limits brought the Little Sea Hill lighthouse within the limits of the port, and the lighthouse reverted to state control in December 1976, with settlement on 6 April 1977, at a cost of $5,000 (lighthouse and 2.185 hectares of land). [34] By 1977 it was converted from gas light to electric power, [35] and around 1984 it was upgraded as a lead structure for Port Alma. [36] It currently has a Tideland ML-300 electric beacon powered by batteries replenished by solar panels, is operated by Maritime Safety Queensland and acts as a landfall light for ships traversing the mouth of the Fitzroy River.

Description

The Little Sea Hill Lighthouse stands on Little Sea Hill, Sea Hill Point, the north-westernmost point on Curtis Island overlooking Keppel Bay off the Central Coast of Queensland. It is in a remote location, approximately 17 kilometres by sea north-easterly from Port Alma, the port of Rockhampton located on the Fitzroy River. The sites of the pilots' houses and post office are immediately southeast of the lighthouse and the site of the first lighthouse is to the northwest.

The lighthouse is a composite structure measuring approximately 12 m high with a 4.3 m diameter base reducing to a 2.24 m lantern floor. The timber framed tower and lantern base are clad with corrugated iron sheeting, fixed vertically and tapered to suit the conical form of the tower. A band of slip sheets approximately 300mm high has replaced the original sheeting around the base. The lantern has flat trapezoidal glazing panels supported in a cast iron frame bolted to the lantern base below and gutter ring above. Four of the landward side panels are infilled with flat sheet metal and a layer of wire mesh has been fitted across all panels. The lantern roof is a hemispherical dome consisting of a cast iron radial rib frame clad with a single skin of metal sheets, lapped and riveted. Attached to the roof are: a central ventilator with drip tray fixed internally; a secondary horseshoe-shaped metal gutter feeding an internal water tank; and a lightning conductor.

The balcony fixed to the exterior of the lantern room is supported on cast iron brackets. Hardwood plank flooring spans between the brackets to which the gallery railing is also fixed. The railing is made of solid wrought iron stanchions with wrought eyes for top and middle rails of iron gas pipe. Two timber light screens, attached to the gallery flooring are supported by steel brackets fixed back to the lantern gutter.

The tower frame is round in plan and tapered in profile, forming a truncated cone which is fixed to a concrete base. A concrete screed covers the base to the top of the bottom plate. The battered tower walls comprise main studs, bands of horizontal battens and lightweight diagonal braces between bottom and top plate. A steel angle ring beam supports the intermediate floor joists which are lined with unpainted pine tongue-and-groove floor boards. There are two windows to both ground and intermediate levels, each of which house a vertically sliding sash. The sash in the intermediate level windows retains clear glazing, the sashes in the ground level windows have been sheeted externally with flat iron sheeting and contain some remnant 10 mm glazing.

Two concrete steps provide access to the entrance door which projects from the western side of the tower. The projecting walls are clad in flat iron sheeting and the barrel vaulted roof in corrugated iron. The timber framed and lined entrance door is a recent replacement.

The timber framed gas cylinder stand with concrete base, the manifolds and main gas riser pipe from the 1933 conversion to acetylene gas are housed in the tower at ground floor level. Other parts of the acetylene system survive in the lantern, including the filter attached to the optic pedestal, and the bracket and pipework for the sun valve. The sun valve, burner, flasher and gas cylinders have all been removed.

Fixed ladders provide access between the ground, intermediate and lantern floor levels.

A perforated timber trap door covers the access hole in the lantern floor. The cylindrical lantern base wall is lined with vertical beaded tongue-and-groove boards and four small round copper alloy regulators in the wall vent the space through cylindrical flues fixed to the exterior. In the centre of the lantern room, a Tideland Max Lumina ML-300 Series E self-contained marine beacon is fixed to the 1895 cast iron optic pedestal and table. The beacon is powered by batteries enclosed in a box in the lantern, charged by photo-voltaic panels on the balcony. The lantern also contains a freestanding timber cupboard.

All elements, externally and internally (with the exception of the intermediate floor level floor boards) have received a painted finish.

References

[1] 'Caloundra Lighthouses'. Queensland Heritage Register 602746.

[2] QHR 602746. However, Marquis-Kyle, P. 'Queensland's timber and iron lighthouses: 19th century colonial innovation'. http://www.marquis-kyle.com.au/DunedinPaper.pdf credits the design to Robert Ferguson, a District Foreman of Works attached to Stanley's office.

[3] QHR 602746.

[4] Lewis, G. 1973. A History of the Ports of Queensland, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, pp. 271-274.

[5] Davenport, W. 1986. Harbours & Marine; Port & Harbour Development in Queensland from 1824 to 1985, Queensland Department of Harbours and Marine, Brisbane, p.396.

[6] 'Fitzroy Diggings', Sydney Morning Herald, 7 December 1858, p.4. There were tents at Sea Hill, according to 'Annals of the Port. The Pilot Service', Morning Bulletin, 31 January 1914, p.9.

[7] Davenport, p.78.

[8] 'Notice to Mariners', Sydney Morning Herald, 25 July 1865, p.4.

[9] Rockhampton Bulletin, 19 January 1875, p.2.

[10] Rockhampton Bulletin, 7 March 1877, p.2.

[11] 'The Colonial Treasurer', The Queenslander, 15 August 1885, p.265. (However, this could also have referred to the pilot station at Grassy Hill, which was sometimes referred to as being at Sea Hill).

[12] 'Statement of the cost of public buildings, together with additions thereto, from the year 1859 to 30th June 1891', (under Rockhampton). Annual Report of the Department of Public Works, 1891.

[13] 'Notice to Mariners', Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 30 March 1886, p.4. Leading lights use two beacons to assist navigation. The rear light is at a higher elevation, and when the front and rear lights are aligned vertically the viewer is following the correct course.

[14] 'Report on Harbours and Lighthouses'. Queensland Votes and Proceedings, 1886, Vol 3. The light was formerly in use at Comboyuro Point on Moreton Island (listed as a Fourth Order light in 1874), and the lantern (the room containing the lens) was from the old East Beacon on the Brisbane Bar.

[15] Fresnel (light-concentrating) lenses were ranked by order, with the first order being the largest and most powerful, and the sixth order the smallest.

[16] The claim of a Fifth Order light was in 'Captain Heath's Inspection' Brisbane Courier, 23 September 1886, p. 5, but the Morning Bulletin, 22 December 1886, p. 5, referred to a Fourth Order light.

[17] 'Charges against the Pilot Henry Birrell' Queensland Votes and Proceedings, 1886, Vol 3.

[18] Morning Bulletin 7 February 1887, p.4. In 'Minor waterways of Central Queensland' Morning Bulletin, 3 April 1915, p.10, it was claimed that customs had recently had a boating station at Sea Hill, with boatmen, boats and boathouses and cottages for the employees, all of which were moved when the station was discontinued.

[19] Davenport, p. 149.

[20] Morning Bulletin, 21 February 1895, p.4.

[21] See National Archives of Australia, Control Symbol 3/10/1. Lighthouse for Sea Hill, Keppel Bay: Marine Department: Queensland, 1895, and Queensland State Archives Item 929176. Curtis Island, Port Curtis, Catcombe [sic] Head, Lighthouse, 1899.

[22] 'Report on the Marine Department for the year 1894-95', Queensland Votes and Proceedings 1895.

[23] National Archives of Australia, O109. Sea Hill Keppel Bay - Fourth Order Fixed and Condensing Apparatus Part Sectional Elevation. 1895.

[24] 'Harbour and River Improvements', The Queenslander, 21 March 1896, p.568.

[25] Queensland State Archives Item 305564, Grassy Hill (Curtis Island) 1947-1951.

[26] National Archives of Australia, D1937/5708. Sea Hill Telephone Exchange, 1903-1937.

[27] 'Sea Hill Pilot Station', Morning Bulletin, 22 November 1918, p.8. Also see Davenport, p.292. Two new pilots' houses were erected at Sea Hill, along with three boatmen's cottages, an oil store, boat shed, 380 foot (116m) boat slip, and a stable. The old school house survived until its roof was torn off in a 1949 cyclone (Queensland State Archives Item 305578. Sea Hill, 1938-1956).

[28] Queensland State Archives Item 305576: Sea Hill, 1906-1927.

[29] National Archives of Australia, 11E PART 1. Cape Capricorn and Little Sea Hill lighthouses - telephone lines. 1920-1952. A coast light marks major features along a coastline, such as capes, points and major islands.

[30] National Archives of Australia, R48. Little Sea Hill light - General, repairs and maintenance 1921-1954.

[31] National Archives of Australia, R48. Little Sea Hill light - General, repairs and maintenance 1921-1954.

[32] National Archives of Australia, CN 11 026. Sea Hill Point - Cylinder arrangement piping layout in tower, 1933.

[33] Davenport, p.292.

[34] National Archives of Australia, SP 3128. Australian Valuation Office - Little Sea Hill Point Lighthouse - disposal to the State of Queensland 1976-77.

[35] Davenport, p.641.

[36] Queensland State Archives Item 933615. Port Alma, Upgrading Lead Structures- 1984, Sea Hill Lighthouse, Details. 1984-1986.

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Location

Location of Little Sea Hill Lighthouse within Queensland
Licence
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Last updated
20 January 2016
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